Chiptuning technologies

Chiptuning, engine optimization, tuning? – we help you find your way

To understand how it is possible to greatly improve the car’s factory driving characteristics using chiptuning, engine optimization without disassembling the engine and without any detrimental consequences ‘with just a tweaking, an electronic adjustment’, we need to know how the 4-stroke engine and the electronics that control the engine functions work if only also tangentially. I am confident that the site will provide useful and understandable information to anyone who has known almost nothing about the operation of their car so far. The use of technical terms in the description was inevitable. You should not skip a single incomprehensible word for full understanding, because then the whole text will soon become confusing and incomprehensible (as for me anno the literature lesson során). blog menu item and if I can I will reply. I’ll help you find your way.

History… From the very beginning, when the first internal combustion engines appeared, it was necessary to adjust the fuel / air mixture, the timing of the ignition advance depending on the current load and operating condition, the good efficiency
in order to.
Initially, the driver of the ‘A’ Model ”of Henry Ford’s car manually adjusted the ignition and fuel supply using the controls on the steering column, affecting engine performance and efficiency. Later, they developed various mechanical solutions that automatically implement the necessary controls in their own simple, far from perfect way.
Until the mid-1980s, these solutions were widespread. Thanks to technical advances, electronics have become increasingly involved in the regulation of engine processes, as with electronic control much
more precise dosing e.g. the required fuel, or to determine – calculate – the ignition time for the current operating condition, achieving better efficiency.
This unit performing a complex control function is called an ‘engine control unit’. In more detail:

chiptuning-technologies

Engine control unit (ECU) and its functions

The Engine Control Unit (ECU) is responsible for ensuring that the engine operates properly in all conditions. This unit measures, monitors and controls all major engine functions, taking into account current load and current environmental effects such as: outside atmospheric pressure, temperature, fuel quality, etc.…
This vital information determines the operating status of the engine in accordance with other information from the various sensors (speed, crankshaft angular position, exhaust gas composition, accelerator pedal position, car speed, etc.). The measured data is processed by the motor controller and then calculations are performed.

The engine control unit contains a memory chip that contains factory-programmed data (including tables) related to engine operation. Based on all processed signals and these tables, the controller decides how much fuel should be injected for the current operating condition, what ignition or injection time should be chosen, what turbocharger pressure is required,

During Chiptuning, we modify these databases.

Thanks to the engine optimization – chpituning –  another setting is programmed into the memory chip, the essence of which is to deviate slightly from the factory-set averages. We make the most of the car’s capabilities – adapted to the customer’s needs – in a way that is different more accurate injection and pre-ignition values ​​are set for load conditions. Occasionally, the derailment speed, power limit, and / or final speed limit are slightly modified for better handling. We do all this by observing and checking the consumption, load and emissions of the engine at all speeds and loads. In this way, maximum power and torque can be extracted from the motor with maximum consideration for motor life. The experience of that due to the optimal setting, the consumption is reduced, the driveability and driving dynamics of the car are greatly increased. Tasks of the motor controller:

Igniton timing control – advance

This is necessary for good combustion efficiency and low consumption. To achieve this in all possible driving situations, the controller calculates the instantaneous advance value from the speed, load and other relevant data. For diesel engines, it calculates the exact injection time, and start of injection.

 

b. Knock detection

One of the most important things for engine operation is to set the advance for each speed and load. If the pre ignition value is selected too low for a given operating condition, the engine will become very weak and the efficiency will deteriorate. If too long a pre-ignition time is chosen, the petrol-air mixture “explodes” too early in the combustion chamber, which has the effect of trying to drive the engine backwards. It comes with a sharp knocking sound and in addition that it also degrades efficiency, puts a lot of strain on engine components.
To avoid this, the so-called knock sensors are placed on the engine, the signals of which are processed by the engine controller, and if a knock is detected, it immediately changes the pre-ignition value.

Dwell control

The time between successive ignition pulses varies depending on the speed. In order to provide constant ignition energy, a suitable “primary current” must flow through the primary coil of the ignition transformer. Then a
magnetic field in the transformer, which takes time. At the moment of ignition, the primary current is interrupted and the collapsing magnetic field generates high voltage energy in the secondary winding of the transformer for the ignition spark.
The time between switching the primary current on and off decreases as the speed increases, so a lower energy ignition spark may occur. This can cause misfires at high speeds. So an important task, from speed
ensuring independent ignition power.

Petrol injection

Depending on the intake air volume, speed, load and correction factors (outside air pressure, temperature, lambda value, etc.), the controller determines the amount of fuel currently required, and injection timing. This improves efficiency and reduces emissions. We also touch these values during the process of chiptuning, remap.

Lambda control

One correction factor is the lambda signal coming from the lambda probe. This probe is located in the exhaust and examines the composition of the exhaust gas, the ‘residual oxygen’ content. The controller processes the probe signal for each load
condition (except for floor gas) and regulates the ratio of gasoline to air mixture. The ideal ratio for consumption is 14.8: 1, which means that 14.8 kg of air is needed to burn 1 kg of petrol. This mixing ratio ensures the best efficiency and the least harmful substances. Depending on whether the probe indicates residual oxygen in the exhaust or not, the controller
enriches where it impoverishes the mixture, always striving for the ideal state. With floor gas (and as the engine load increases – starting, accelerating) it enriches the mixture better for greater performance, ie injecting more petrol than necessary. make completely new production lines and design a new engine,…
Even today’s cars often have 4-5 year old mechanical construction engines. – Of course, there are minor changes are recognized
An important factor in competition between car manufacturers is that they can come up with innovations every year, mainly in terms of performance and consumption, due to market competition…
So how can they solve this?
They make a very good, low-power engine, then drive it down as much as they can and sell it. Then a year later, they change the electronic setting and a big novelty comes: “Our technology has evolved tremendously, our new model is 10 hp more powerful and consumes 0.5 liters less. ..)
The position of the manufacturers is clear and simple:
If you want a stronger car, buy it much more expensive with a bigger engine, or in 1-2 years with the same engine, only with a better electronic setting (quasi-chip tuning!), Of course much more expensive.

Idle speed control

Continuously decreasing and increasing internal friction due to changes in engine temperature means a variable load on the engine at idle as well. Increased electrical energy demand (e.g., turning on a reflector) and an on-air conditioner as well.
This variable load would result in highly fluctuating idling. The motor controller detects these load changes, takes into account the environmental conditions and always sets the appropriate stable idle. It can be observed that
eg: sets a higher idle speed until the engine warms up…

Turbo pressure control

For supercharged engines, the controller calculates the currently required turbocharger pressure (the pressure of the air to be delivered, in proportion to its volume). Based on multiple incoming signals and a self-programmed reference table.

Environmental functions: EGR (exhaust gas recirculation), DPF (particulate filter), catalytic converter, Adblue, other
At partial engine load, part of the exhaust gas is recirculated and added to the intake air in order to reduce the release of harmful substances into the environment. This reduces NOx (nitrogen oxides) emissions.
This process is also controlled by the motor controller.

Service, security and monitoring functions:

– Checks the entire control program at startup to avoid malfunctions.
– Interoperability with other control units in the car, data synchronization.
– Detection and storage of errors that occur, to facilitate later troubleshooting and repair.

Top speed and maximum speed limitation

Speed ​​limitation is a very important function of the controller. By constantly monitoring the speed and keeping it below a certain value, excessive strain on the motor can be prevented. This value is stored by the control unit and often loses fuel when it reaches 6500 rpm (petrol engine) which results in deregulation.
The final speed limit is set for security and / or business policy purposes, as mentioned above.

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